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What is D-aspartic acid - DAA?
D-aspartic acid, also known by the abbreviation DAA, is the only naturally occurring D-amino acid in the human body. It is also present in trace amounts in some foods such as soy protein or casein. In the human body, the concentration of D-aspartic acid is highest in the tissue types responsible for stimulating testosterone production, as well as the actual production of testosterone. These are the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus and the testes.
How does D-aspartic acid work?
D-aspartic acid stimulates an increase in the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary gland, which signal the testes to produce more testosterone. What is particularly interesting here is that, unlike the use of steroids or prohormones, there is no suppression of the body's own testosterone production after discontinuation of D-aspartic acid. In addition to this, scientific research suggests that D-aspartic acid can also significantly increase growth hormone levels in the body. Furthermore, D-aspartic acid can significantly increase nitric oxide production, which increases blood flow to the muscles. This results in a stronger muscle pump during exercise and a better supply of oxygen, nutrients and anabolic hormones to the working muscles.
A growing body of scientific research supports the role of different biochemical compounds in regulating testosterone levels. D-amino acids have a different molecular form than L-amino acids, which were previously thought to be the only naturally occurring amino acids. L-amino acids are converted to their D form by enzymes called racemases.
Scientists have found that D-amino acids - and in particular D-aspartic acid (DAA) - play important roles in the neurological and endocrine systems. D-aspartic acid (DAA) is secreted by nerve endings to increase cAMP levels and thereby regulate neurotransmission. In the endocrine system, DAA forms the precursor for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which induces the release of GnR hormone by the hypothalamus. GnRH then stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce luteinizing hormone (LH), which in turn acts on specific Leydig cells of the testes to ultimately increase testosterone secretion.
Scientific studies have shown that oral administration of about 3 grams of D-aspartic acid could increase testosterone levels by an average of 42% in just 12 days in healthy young men with natural testosterone levels that were within the normal physiological range.
Testosterone is by far the most important hormone for the expression of masculine characteristics. In the field of bodybuilding, the focus is often on increasing testosterone levels in order to stimulate muscle growth and achieve increased muscle mass and strength. Androgen receptors in muscle tissue and in the nucleus of muscle cells allow testosterone to exert its anabolic effects. This has become an important factor in the use of anabolic steroids, but they can damage health and have serious side effects. The use of D-aspartic acid could be a viable, if not quite as potent, alternative that both accelerates muscle building through increased endogenous testosterone levels and does not carry the health risks and potential side effects of anabolic steroids.
What are the benefits of testosterone production increased by D-aspartic acid?
Testosterone is the most important hormone for building muscle mass and strength and increased testosterone production is therefore synonymous with faster muscle and strength building. In addition to this, testosterone speeds up recovery, which means you can train more often and stimulate muscle growth more often. And since testosterone is also the primary male sex hormone, an increase in testosterone levels results in increased libido and sexual performance.
Who can benefit from supplementation with D-aspartic acid?
- Male athletes who want to build muscle mass and strength faster
- Dieting athletes who want to protect their hard-earned muscle mass from diet-induced muscle loss
- Men over 25 who want to counteract a natural age-related reduction in testosterone production.
- Users of steroids or prohormones who want to restart their endogenous testosterone production more quickly after discontinuation
What are the main benefits of D-aspartic acid?
- Average increase in endogenous testosterone production of over 40% in just 12 days
- Build muscle mass and strength faster
- Accelerated regeneration after training
- Anticatabolic effect and muscle protection during a calorie-restricted diet
- Increased libido and sexual performance
- Increase in growth hormone levels
- Increased pump and improved supply of muscles with oxygen, nutrients and anabolic hormones
Although the intake recommendation may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and preparation to preparation, the general dosage recommendation is 3 grams of DAA per day. On training days, this dose should be taken about 45 minutes before training and on non-training days first thing in the morning or last thing in the evening on an empty stomach.
The discovery of DAA appears to provide a viable alternative to steroids or other performance enhancing pharmaceuticals. Although scientific studies with DAA have not yet provided conclusive results and more detailed studies are needed, DAA has shown great promise. Users generally report good results with a noticeable increase in libido, strength and even aggression. So far, there are no known side effects of DAA.
- D'Aniello, A, 'D-aspartic acid: an endogenous amino acid with an important neuroendocrine role' (2007) 53(2) Brain research reviews 215.
- Di Fiore, MM et al, 'Opposing effects of D-aspartic acid and nitric oxide on tuning of testosterone production in mallard testis during the reproductive cycle' (2008) 6(1) Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 28.
- Gwartney, D., Testosterone (2011).
- Kadi, F, 'Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the action of testosterone on human skeletal muscle. A basis for illegal performance enhancement' (2008) 154(3) British journal of pharmacology 522.
- Topo, E et al, 'The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats' (2009) 7(1) Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 120.